The association, in terms of its form, orientation and actions, is based on the model of the generational principles of the historic Navigation Schools of the Island of Foehr from the 16th to the 18th century as sustainable non-profit leadership academies through the successes of an output of more than 2,000 Captains as the intellectual and economic elite of the still largely egalitarian seafaring societies of the North Frisian Islands Foehr, Amrum, Sylt and the Hallig Islands.
In the sense of the founder of the Foehr Navigation Schools, the pastor Richardus Petri at the St. Laurentii church in Suederende on the Island of Foehr, who was born on Dagebüll in 1597 and who from 1620 until his death in 1678 exercised the office of pastor on Foehr, ist he example and basis for the actionplan by RUENJHAID!-CLUB.
The non-profit education system developed by Petri for leadership academies, is for us in the sense of the upcoming “6th Kondratieff Cycle“ as a basis for a long periode of prosperity in the holistic sense of a new „HEALTH“ – physically, mentally, mentally, ecologically and socially – to promote the leadership role of “Health Captains” and thus sustainably promote the value-based healthcare strategy.
RUNJHAID! means in Fering, the language of the Island of Foehr: “To be Round!” – the development of “round” personalities is to be promoted by the new edition of Petri’s leadership academy principles. RUENJHAID! also means „WEALTH“. RUNJHAID! Stands for “Service for Humanity – Creating Sustainable Leadership”.
Orientation, anchoring of this circle of friends begins at the place of origin on the Island of Foehr. The task of RUENJHAID! is to promote his tradition of Foehr and to take this positive example how to create „sustainable leadership“ to promote this and multiply this into the world for imitation. The motto for this circle of friends is:
The Foehr Navigation Schools
Speech by Dr. Volkert Faltings on Thursday, May 1, 2003 at the Ferring Foundation in Alkersum on Foehr on the occasion of the opening of SUENJHAID!
To many of you I am hardly telling you anything new, and if you have not known it before, you would have known for a long time that the navigation on the North Frisian islands of Foehr, Amrum and Sylt, as well as the neighboring Hallig, played an outstanding role , Which is not surprising because of the amphibious conditions of the country. The theme that I would like to make you aware of today is the “Föhrer Navigation Schools – an imitative model”. Before I go with you inter medias res, let me first take a brief look back at the maritime history of the islands, for without this retrospect the subject seems hardly comprehensible to me.
Archaeological finds suggest that the islands of the islands were already at their immigration in the 7th / 8th century. To the area of today’s North-Frisian Islands, the so-called Utland, sailors or better – similar to the Vikings – sea-going peasants were with a great radius of action along the north coast. They took a great deal of trade routes far to the north to the then Scandinavian trading-places, to the south to the mouth of the Rhine, and thence to England. This was probably due to the fact that there was very little change in the age of the Late and Late Middle Ages, although we hardly know anything about it. In fact, only some, mostly Hanseatic sources are handed down, in which the North Frisians as merchants, But also as a caper, but this view of things – at least with a view to the latter – is ultimately somewhat one-sided, because in the conflicts of the Hanseatic League with the Danish Crown, the Hanseatic League, especially the Hamburgers, also temporarily captured what they could get. According to experience the evil is always the other.
We are only able to secure more reliable news in the 14th / 15th century. In the 16th century, the islands of the islands, as herring fishermen, rejoined us at Helgoland. Together with the Dutch, the Hamburgians, the Jütten and other North Sea inhabitants, they imitate the immense herring swarms which at that time accumulated in the southern North Sea around Heligoland every year. The demand for this “gold of the sea,” as the herring was sometimes called, was almost inexhaustible. The salt used to preserve the herring boiled the North Frisians from the sea village under the sea meadows. Nordfriesische Kauffahrer transported not only the salt, but also the salted herring in their Schmacken to the Rhine or to southern Norway. The North Frisian fishermen as well as the salt seers and merchants came to prosperity. In the middle of the sixteenth century, however, the eruption of herring in the fishing grounds before Helgoland had not yet been established. This was not the cause of overfishing, as we have seen it again and again today Can As a result, the economy here soon went steeply downhill. Suddenly Nordfriesland could no longer feed his children.
A way out of this apparently natural economic crisis should, of course, soon come to an end. English explorers, especially Dutch explorers, who explored the Arctic at the end of the 16th century in the search for a still northern passage to East Asia, reported large numbers of whale sharks in the waters around Greenland and Spitzbergen Then sailing nations a regular run on the largest mammal in the world, the whale, used. English, Dutch, Danish, and then Spanish and Hanseatic vessels were hunting for the gold of the Arctic, the Waltran, in ever greater numbers. This raw material soon became a fluorescent of the future, with which the street lanterns were soon fired in Hamburg, London, Amsterdam and Paris. Later the whales, the so-called fish bones, also gave good yields. As specialists of whaling, the Basques used to be from time immemorial and so it is not surprising that the Dutch whaling companies preferred Basque harpooners and bacon cutters in their ships’ teams. In this initial phase, North Frisian sailors may have played only a subordinate role in the lower batches of the whaling hierarchy.
With the raw material Tran, the coveted fluorescent, which burned so much brighter and more sustainably than the hitherto customary Rüböl, immense fortune could be accumulated within a few years. It is easy to imagine, therefore, that in the steadily growing international competition, it was not long before the rivalries broke out between the companies that were in the wilderness. The resulting political dissonances between France and the Dutch General States led to the French Crown being forbidden to hire their Basque subjects under heavy punishment on ships of their Dutch main competitors. The beneficiaries of this type of protectionism, who remained completely ineffectual, were the island-Frisian sailors, who could easily close the gaps left by the Basques. The old connections between the islands of the islands and the Dutch, which had developed during the common period of the herring catch before Helgoland, were clearly not forgotten.
However, the Dutch have not learned anything from this process: despite the bad experiences the French competition had made with the departure of their Basque sailors, the Dutch, one generation later, in 1664, attempted their Hanseatic competitors out of the race in the same way : They also forbade their sailors to hire huntsian whalers. Benefiters – they already guessed it – were once again the island-friesian whaler, who immediately afterwards in the arising Personallücke.
As a rule, the Dutch whaling companies occupied the position of commander and other high-ranking shipowners with landlords in the 17th century. The Hanseatic and some English shipping companies did not do this, possibly because of the lack of suitable candidates. In increasing numbers, the island-whale whale-hunters rose to the top of the team hierarchy, where a Frisian commander, a Frisian steward, or a harpooner were engaged on the fishing vessels. During the high time of the whaling around 1750, Föhr had about 5,500 inhabitants, of which only about 1,600 sailors, ie. Nearly a third of the total population was seafloor during the summer months, of which only 150 are the shipwrights, 74 are taxpayers, 150 are harpooners, and 7 are shipwrights, i. Again almost a quarter of the Föhrer sailors occupied one of the so lucrative positions of a ship officer at the exit. Considering that on this occasion, about 3,900 seafarers per annum on Dutch whalers, of whom almost exactly half are foreigners, of which over 90% are islands of islands, one can estimate the enormous economic importance of whaling for the whale At that time insular population.
It was not unimportant whether the whaling was done as a simple sailor or as a commander, or at least as a steward or harpooner, As a ship officer, as the following comparison shows. According to this, a cooksmader earned in these years with successful homecoming per season about today’s currency 3,500 euros, an oldmatrose already 7,000 euros, a whaling commander against 28,000 euros or nearly four times as much. It was no wonder, therefore, that anyone who had the right to do so was anxious to advance into the hierarchy of the ship’s officers. In fact, a Greenland commander comes around 1750 on Föhr to 30 whalers. Compared to Dutch or Hanseatic conditions, this is an unusual – almost unbelievable – high proportion, and the question is how this can be tackled.
Last but not least, Friesian chroniclers have pointed out this fact more often – not without pride – and especially in the times of the 1,000 years, which have lasted only 12 years. The tall, hard beading of the Frisian family, tempered by a dangerous, deprived life on and with the sea, was predestined in a century-long selection process, in which only the racially strong had prevailed, almost by its typical inheritance Whaling. The Aryan race had also prevailed in this area.
This is, of course, nothing but perverse racial ideology or, in other words, nonsensical nonsense! The explanation is much more unspectacular, albeit less uninteresting. Whaling was at that time a hard, dirty business characterized by many dangers, which was also badly paid if you were a simple sailor. He was able to feed a head strong family more badly than right, and in fact numerous families of such simple whales often lived on the poverty line. On the other hand, riches were only to be acquired in whaling, if they succeeded in moving into the position of a ship’s officer, most understandably in the position of a commander, but this presupposed an extensive knowledge of mathematics, navigation and astronomy. Such knowledge could understandably only provide a thorough and, above all, professional nautical training. To this insight the affected persons arrived already early and already in the 17th century we encountered first testimonies of navigation schools on Föhr. Navigation schools were found up to then only in the large port cities far away in the North Frisian Wattenmeer islands on the Schleswig-Wessel. A visit to these schools would have been hardly possible for the majority of island sailors, not only for geographical reasons, but for financial reasons alone. This deficiency could only be overcome by means of self-help.
Promoter of this self-help was – for the outsider at first perhaps astonishingly – not from the subject, but pastor at the St. Laurentii church in Süderende on Föhr. The speech is by Richardus Petri, who was born to Dagebüll as the son of the pastor there in 1597. From 1620 until his death in 1678, he held the office of the pastor in St. Laurentii church in the west of the island of Föhr.
As it is said, Petrus Richardi soon after his commissioned seafarer of his community in the tax consultant. This is remarkable inasmuch as the spiritual master himself has never led a ship, let alone ever undertook a long sea voyage. However, the inclination to steuermannskunde perhaps came not by chance. Richardus, as I have said, came from Dagebüll, which at that time was still an indistinct Hallig, and was inhabited chiefly by sailors who carried on the shipping trade along the North Sea between Holland and Southern Norway in their little coastal sailors. Among these sailors, the bright-hearted pastor’s son would soon have come into contact with nautical questions-and who knows, perhaps he himself would have liked to become a ship-master if his father had left him alone.
It is clear that Richardus Petri must have acquired a thorough knowledge of the taxpayer’s business, and that he gave it to the sailors of his congregation, likewise, but on the whole we know very little about the whole process. Probably also belonged to one of the most famous, at least the most successful whaler of his time, namely the old-born Matz Peters or Matthias Petersen, also called the “Happy Matthias”, to his pupils. We do not know the organization of Richardus Petri’s school of navigation; Here we are also dependent on assumptions. Certainly the school enterprise will only have taken place during the autumn and winter months when the sailors returned from their arctic whaling to their home villages. There was no special school building either, and even the school business was not going according to fixed rules.
On the contrary, the navigation pupils of different age and in varying composition and in a rather relaxed rhythm probably met in the pastor’s house at the pastorate in Süderende, where they received a thorough instruction in mathematics. Later navigational students like Jens Jacob Eschels, whose name has entered the present-day Jens-Jacob-Eschels-Straße in Nieblum, wrote in his memoirs about the year 1774: “I went to the Steuermannsschule this winter, in the evening of 6 At twelve o’clock, for the day, the teacher, Nickels Wögens, who had also been sailing at sea at a young age, and now practiced watchmaking, had no time. Each student had his three computing calculators [d.s. Slate boards], which must have been fully counted every evening. On the other day it was then written from the tables into my book of the Steuermann. In 35 evenings I read the first two books of Claas Hendriksen Gietermaker, and paid a schilling lunchtime for every evening, and after that I had once again counted for one schilling per day in 25 days, so that my learning of navigation would give me only 60 shillings Speciestaler. “As far as Jens Jacob Eschels. Imagine this today, you would be entrusted with a 16-year-old student to carry out a fairly comprehensive mathematical book of exercises and exercises in 35 lessons, voluntarily, naturally and in the evening, first in Kladde and then transfer them again into the Steuermannsbuch. But not enough with it: the whole thing should be counted again in 25 hours. An outcry would go through the ranks of the educated and self-taught educators. However, the pupils of that time mastered their profession after such an ox-tour! And so that no misunderstandings arise: these were tasks that one would hardly dare to ask a grammar school student in the mathematics performance class as a high school diploma. Every high school examination commission would have to reject these tasks as too difficult, although today’s most modern tabular compendia and, above all, a pocket calculator are available. The students of that time must have had their pocket calculators in their heads, because without the ability to calculate quickly and reliably in their heads, they would hardly have been able to cope with the often complex calculations of the tasks.
As we can see, this course must have been a kind of course of chess, which could be repeated and refreshed as required in the following years. There were only a few textbooks in the modern sense. However, the work of the Claas Hendriksen Gietermaker, “Schatkamer der Stuurlieden”, which formed the basis of navigation teaching along the entire North Sea coast and served as a model for later textbooks. In 1743, according to Gietermaker, the Foehrer Nanning Arians wrote the textbook “Schat-Kammer, Konst der Stuur-Lieden”, which has been preserved in the Dutch language. At all, the textbooks were seldom printed in printed versions, but only in transcripts, which the student either himself undertook or assumed from a predecessor. The language of the early textbooks is almost Dutch, for Dutch is the language of the continental seafaring of the time, as is the English language for today’s pilots. The lessons themselves were probably held in Frisian. German played only a subordinate role for the island fraternities at the time, but it appeared to be Lutherdeutsch in the church at all events, and was not even understood by many, especially women and children. Another textbook written by a foreman named Ocke Tückis, entitled “Besteckbuch”, was still in use by the Föhrer navigational pupils after 1800. Not to be missed are the works by Föhrers Hinrich Braren from Oldsum, who in the 19th century at the sailing school in Tönning an der Eider, influenced whole generations of pupils and whose pedagogic skill is praised in the textbooks that are still known today. What is striking about all of these textbooks is, finally, that they are very much practice-oriented – which is often denied our present textbooks (Pisa salutes) – and, above all, they were oriented on the control of the taxpayer. Entire examinations are carried out in an alternation of question and answer, and they probably also served to internalize them by means of memoranda. In this connection, I should like to point to the widely expressed view that virtually every Frisian is a born master of the rake, who has, as a matter of fact, taken the arithmetic as a spiritual heritage into the cradle. This opinio communis is, in fact, inescapable through the literature of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, such as Storm’s novella “Die Schimmelreiter”, in which Storm portrays the main figure, the Deichgrafen Hauke Haien, as a Frisian with arithmetic and algebra. Even a classmates of mine were once given by our former French teacher: “Frisians can count, but nothing else!” Even the Frisians themselves carry this opinion in front of themselves, proudly, but occasionally also apologizing, as recently as a Frisian mother a Sextant, on a parental evening, which, in response to my slight reproaches, her daughter had a little abstruse notions of German orthography, shouldered her shouldered in Frisian:
It is, of course, only a topos, a much-used stereotype, to which the one who uses it is only too willing to believe, although the absurdity of the stereotype has long been proved statistically . An examination at the local grammar school in which the achievements of Frisian students in mathematics, German and English of the last 30 years were compared with the corresponding achievements of the other, non – Friesian pupils proved clearly: the censures of Frisians in mathematics did not exceed the average of the Other students, on the contrary, they were even slightly worse. The Frisians were much better off than their non-Frisian schoolmates in English, which does not surprise me as a linguist: the bilingual abilities of the Frisians are a factor here. A bilingual child is always superior to a monolingual – with a view to linguistic mobility – in the normal case, which is of course an enormous advantage when acquiring a foreign language. Most of the Europeans were bilingual, or even multilingual, before the development of European nationalities, and they were made monolingual only in the course of the 19th century by the national school program, in the case of the Frisians. forcibly; In retrospect, of course, this was an infinitely foolish stupidity committed by national blindness, like so much that arose from the idea of the European national state.
But let’s go back to navigation lessons! Where then did the outstanding mathematical abilities of the island sailors, who were praised everywhere? In my opinion, a certain mathematical tradition under the island fronts has developed over several centuries, due to the maritime journey and the regional navigation schools connected with it. Mathematics enjoys and still enjoys a higher place in the cultural consciousness of these people than elsewhere. I am even ready to say that she is part of her Frisian identity. This, of course, has nothing to do with genetic imprinting!
The large inflow which these privately organized Föhrer Seafaring Schools were able to register for themselves had, however, also a very handfesten reason: the teaching money barely exceeded the running expenses for fuel and light, some of the navigation teacher did not even raise this expense. The already quoted Jens Jacob Eschels testifies that his lessons had cost him only one speciestaler per anno, which then amounted to about 25 kg of rye. Or about 8 kg of butter. This is, in fact, not a particularly high amount. Here, too, the spirit of Richardus Petris, the founder of the Föhrer navigational lessons, is still beating, which is reported to have taken his lessons free of charge, with the proviso that those who would later turn him into commander or steward The transfer of their navigation knowledge to the subsequent youth, what was then also done. In almost every larger place on Föhr there were these private navigation schools, sometimes even several, the winter of experienced commanders or other ship officers, in their good room were held, not infrequently also by the local village school teachers, with the low school fee Narrow teacher bargaining. Some of these teachers were concerned only with the fuel materials brought along, because they were scarce and expensive at Föhr.
The catchment area of the Föhrer Navigationsschulen was considerable; In the winter, not only did the sailors of the Föhrers enter the lessons, but also the pupils from the neighboring islands of Sylt and Amrum, even from distant Halligen and the villages of the North Frisian mainland Logisgeld were accommodated. This shows that the Föhrer Navigation Schools enjoyed an excellent reputation among the North Frisian sailors, according to which the educational level of these schools must have been high. In my opinion, however, the organization system of the private navigation schools was crucial for their success, and this was: help by self-help, carried out by competent practitioners who passed on their knowledge practically to their pupils, and all this in an almost private family atmosphere Of the teacher – and even though it is almost free of charge. It was precisely the latter circumstance which enabled less-educated pupils to receive a qualified education, if they brought with them only the intellectual prerequisites. The attendance of the navigation lessons was therefore not dependent on the father’s purse as in the state seafaring schools of the large port cities. It is only in this way that it is clear that many Föhr commanders came from the most distressed circumstances, but, thanks to their well-founded training, were able to quickly gain the position of a whale commander or captain of merchant ships, including two of my immediate ancestors, Dietrich Roeloffs and Früd Faltings, Who could never have done it without a visit to the Föhr Seafaring School solely for financial reasons. Finally, the unusually high percentage of ship-owners and ship-officers, as described above, is also explained. The fact that these private schools were able to function for such a long period of time, that the commanders, as the intellectual and economic elite of a naval society, were at all comfortable to surrender to the “lower people” in quotes, The rightly closed social structures of the indigenous insular population, which can be described as egalitarian to the present day. The wealthy commander, many of whom were multimillionaire by today’s standards, differed little in their appearance, habit, or language from a normal sailor. He was surely met with respect, but usually not with submissive subservience, and a simple sailor-even a ship’s boy-it would never have occurred to the noble gentlemen to speak and address the noble gentlemen other than his first name. Even today one can not undertake a greater faux pas among the Föhringers than to “hang out” their material or spiritual superiority, as is often said. Silent disrespect and mocking looks would be the result.
What has become of the private Föhr navigation schools? When, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, Schleswig-Holstein and Holstein, and also the Kingdom of Denmark, to which the western part of the island, together with Amrum, was subject, became a compulsory taxpayer’s examination for a later captain’s career. But on the contrary! Visiting the private navigation lessons was the prerequisite for many of them to be successful at the state naval school in Altona, Copenhagen and elsewhere.
This changed only when one day, on July 19, 1864, the island was occupied by Austrian troops in the course of the German-Danish War, in order to free us, as they claimed, or perhaps even really meant, and in its consequence The Duchy of Schleswig was annexed by Prussia on 12 January 1867. From then on it was with the private seafaring schools on Föhr past. Private navigation did not fit into the state-controlled school system of the Prussians, and was probably not compatible with the authorities responsible for the prohibition of the Föhr navigational schools, with the state’s understanding of the state that such sovereign tasks could only be operated and controlled by the state. Of course, quite different interests were behind it. Already before the war, Bismarck had stated, among other things, that the possible conflicts between the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein and the port cities of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, The seamanship there, without which he thought the construction of a naval force was not possible, at any rate for as soon as he planned and hoped. For this reason it was necessary, of course, to keep these maritime systems under the control of the state, with the private seafaring schools becoming understandable. It was true, however, that the Prussians had to go back to the rear by a mass emigration to the United States, when the Prussians had envisaged a three-year military service on the ships of Her Majesty the King of Prussia Must have been so much more angry than to have enjoyed an exemption from the military service under the Danish administration. The new gentlemen acknowledged this landlord with a decade of reprisals. Sailors who had returned to the territory of Prussia, without having voluntarily carried out their military service in the navy, were imprisoned, if they were still Prussian citizens, or if they had accepted American citizenship, and were subject to a permanent entry ban. As a result, the sailors, many of whom were in principle willing to return, were bringing their wives and brides to the United States, which meant that the emigration wave, unlike the Prussian authorities, was only reinforced. When the responsible authorities finally grasped their elementary error and countered with a state naval school in Wyk in 1872, it was too late. Confidence in the new governance had been lost in the light of the previous experience, and it was reported that, in addition to this, the stiff official tone of this school did not suit the Föhrern. They were used to this from the captain’s rooms of the private Föhr Seafaring Schools, where they were more familiar, but not less serious. The operation of the state school was discontinued after only a few years.
Let us return to Richardus Petri at the end of my speech. Even if his work as a navigational instructor has been little known, his name stands for a unique model of self-initiative and self-responsibility, which is a whole island and the people who live on it for several centuries both culturally and economically, indeed, in all Public spheres of public life, without the aid of the state. Unfortunately, the outstanding achievement of this man, whose scope he himself was probably not at all conscious of, is now often forgotten, although this model might be of use in our present time, in which there is a renewed emphasis on help for self-help and self-initiative Is.
In the recent past, however, there have been no attempts to preserve Richardus Petri from the above-mentioned oblivion, among other things by suggesting that a school of Föhr was named after him, which would undoubtedly have been quite appropriate, but this advance failed The persistent ignorance of upstream authorities, who are usually involved in such matters. After my decades of experience with such instances, this ignorance will not change, for, to change a Biblical quotation easily, “the official ignorance lasts forever!”
Thank you for your attention!
Dr. Volkert Faltings